First, the content material summary:
To test the understanding of the candidates with the types of risk factors and mechanical intrinsic basic safety requirements of main gear and places during the produce and use of equipment.
Second, the crucial points, difficult points:
(1) Understand the main groups of mechanical products;
(2) Understand the intrinsic safety requirements of mechanical style and the type of safety gadget of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler room, surroundings compressor station, gas place, oxygen station, acetylene station dangerous point and general safety technology administration requirements.
Third, the articles explains:
Machinery is a device that is assembled by a quantity of interconnected elements and may perform certain functions. During the operation of the mechanical equipment, at least some of the comparative motions are produced relating to certain rules. The complete mechanical device consists of a best mover, a control and control program, a transmission mechanism, a support gadget and an actuator.
gearboxes equipment is an essential equipment in modern creation and existence. While getting high effectiveness, acceleration and convenience to people, the machine also brings mechanical harm such as effect, extrusion, cutting and various other non-mechanical risks such as electric shock, sound and high heat range during its manufacture, procedure and make use of.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of workers in the whole process of production and use of machinery, from various hazardous factors. Mechanical safety includes two aspects of the safety of mechanical item developing and the security of mechanical devices.
1.1, mechanical product production safety
(1) Primary classes of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The primary products of the machinery market are as comes after:
(1) Agricultural equipment: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting machinery, etc.
(2) Large mining machinery: metallurgical equipment, mining machinery, lifting equipment, launching and unloading machinery, commercial and mining vehicles, cement products, etc.
(3) Construction machinery: forklifts, earthmoving machinery, compaction machinery, concrete machinery, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic material processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electrical machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electrical motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electric welding machines, household appliances, etc.
(6) Machine equipment: metal reducing machine equipment, forging machines, foundry machinery, woodworking equipment, etc.
(7) Cars: trucks, road buses, vehicles, modified vehicles, motorbikes, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automatic instruments, electric tools, optical equipment, component analyzers, automotive instrumentation, electrical products, audio-visual equipment, cameras, etc.
(9) Basic equipment: bearings, hydraulic parts, closes, powder metallurgy products, standard fasteners, commercial chains, armor and weapon upgrades, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metal packaging items, metallic containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, air pollution prevention equipment, solid waste materials treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Other machinery.
The main products of the nonmechanical industry include railway equipment, construction equipment, textile machinery, light industrial machinery, and maritime machinery.
(2) Mechanical safety design and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Basic safety design minimizes risk. Mechanical safety style refers to the appropriate form and relatives placement from the component material to the part in the mechanical design stage, from limiting the operating pressure, the quality and acceleration of the shifting parts to reducing sound and vibration, using inbuilt safety technology and power resource, applying zero The theory of compelled mechanical actions between parts, mixed with ergonomic desk concepts and various other measures, avoids or reduces the risk by choosing suitable design buildings; it can also improve the reliability, procedure mechanization or automation of the products and Procedures such as modifications and maintenance outside the danger zone to prevent or decrease the risk.
Intrinsically safe
Inbuilt safety is normally a mechanical safety method that is normally adopted by mechanical designers to take measures to remove mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic safety technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions by using this technology. It can satisfy the safety requirements of the machine itself when carrying out established functions of the machine under predetermined conditions without using additional protection precautions. These include: staying away from sharp edges, razor-sharp corners and bulges; making sure adequate safety distances; identifying limits on physical amounts; using intrinsically secure procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a adequate safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Protection of components and materials
Components, fuels, and materials utilized to help to make equipment need to not endanger the safety or wellness of workers during use. The mechanical properties of the materials, such as tensile power, shear strength, impact strength, yield limit, etc., should meet up with the fill requirements for performing the intended function; the material should be able to withstand the predetermined environmental circumstances, such as corrosion resistance, maturing resistance, and level of resistance. The ability to use; the material should have uniformity, prevent the metallographic structure of the material from being uneven credited to unreasonable procedure design, and generate residual stress; at the same period, prevent using dangerous materials or substances, and should avoid the machinery itself or credited to make use of. The risk of open fire and explosion from gases, liquids, dust, vapors or other substances created by specific materials.
4) Fulfilling security ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the basic safety man-machine design theory is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, work space layout, etc., enhancing the operability and reliability of mechanical apparatus, and producing the operator’s physical power Consumption and emotional stress are minimized, thus reducing operational errors.
5) Safety principles for developing control systems
During the use of machinery, the normal harmful conditions are: unintentional begin, out of control of speed alter, movement can not stop, shifting mechanical parts or workpieces fall off, the function of security gadgets is definitely clogged. The style of the control program should consider into account the operating settings of the different functions or the usage of mistake display gadgets so that the user can deal with them safely.
6) Prevent the problems of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Machines that use pneumatic, hydraulic, thermal, and other products need to be designed to avoid the potential hazards associated with accidental discharge of these energies.